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Mac Audio Ice Storm 225
Jul 12, 4 0 Estonia. Hey guys, so i have this question about wiring and stuff. Components i have: Toxic TX amplifier. Specifies whether the stereo signal uses Dolby Surround Pro Logic. This field will only be written to the bitstream if the audio stream is stereo. Original Bit Stream Indicator. Specifies whether this audio is from the original source and not a copy.
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It is grouped into 2 parts. If any one parameter in a group is specified, all values in that group will be written to the bitstream. Default values are used for those that are written but have not been specified. Preferred Stereo Downmix Mode. Dolby Surround EX Mode. Indicates whether the stream uses Dolby Surround EX 7. Dolby Headphone Mode. Indicates whether the stream uses Dolby Headphone encoding multi-channel matrixed to 2.
Stereo Rematrixing. This option is enabled by default, and it is highly recommended that it be left as enabled except for testing purposes. Set lowpass cutoff frequency. If unspecified, the encoder selects a default determined by various other encoding parameters. These options are only valid for the floating-point encoder and do not exist for the fixed-point encoder due to the corresponding features not being implemented in fixed-point. The per-channel high frequency information is sent with less accuracy in both the frequency and time domains.
This allows more bits to be used for lower frequencies while preserving enough information to reconstruct the high frequencies. This option is enabled by default for the floating-point encoder and should generally be left as enabled except for testing purposes or to increase encoding speed. Coupling Start Band. Sets the channel coupling start band, from 1 to If a value higher than the bandwidth is used, it will be reduced to 1 less than the coupling end band. If auto is used, the start band will be determined by the encoder based on the bit rate, sample rate, and channel layout.
This option has no effect if channel coupling is disabled. Sets the compression level, which chooses defaults for many other options if they are not set explicitly. Valid values are from 0 to 12, 5 is the default. Chooses if rice parameters are calculated exactly or approximately. Multi Dimensional Quantization. If set to 1 then a 2nd stage LPC algorithm is applied after the first stage to finetune the coefficients.
This is quite slow and slightly improves compression. This is a native FFmpeg encoder for the Opus format. Currently its in development and only implements the CELT part of the codec. Its quality is usually worse and at best is equal to the libopus encoder.
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If unspecified it uses the number of channels and the layout to make a good guess. Sets the maximum delay in milliseconds. Lower delays than 20ms will very quickly decrease quality. Requires the presence of the libfdk-aac headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libfdk-aac.
The library is also incompatible with GPL, so if you allow the use of GPL, you should configure with --enable-gpl --enable-nonfree --enable-libfdk-aac. This encoder is considered to produce output on par or worse at kbps to the the native FFmpeg AAC encoder but can often produce better sounding audio at identical or lower bitrates and has support for the AAC-HE profiles. If the bitrate is not explicitly specified, it is automatically set to a suitable value depending on the selected profile. Note that VBR is implicitly enabled when the vbr value is positive. If not specified or explicitly set to 0 it will use a value automatically computed by the library.
Enable afterburner feature if set to 1, disabled if set to 0. This improves the quality but also the required processing power. Set VBR mode, from 1 to 5. Requires the presence of the libmp3lame headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libmp3lame. See libshine for a fixed-point MP3 encoder, although with a lower quality. The following options are supported by the libmp3lame wrapper. The lame -equivalent of the options are listed in parentheses. Set constant quality setting for VBR. Set algorithm quality. Valid arguments are integers in the range, with 0 meaning highest quality but slowest, and 9 meaning fastest while producing the worst quality.
Enable use of bit reservoir when set to 1. LAME has this enabled by default, but can be overridden by use --nores option. Enable the encoder to use ABR when set to 1. The lame --abr sets the target bitrate, while this options only tells FFmpeg to use ABR still relies on b to set bitrate. Requires the presence of the libopencore-amrnb headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libopencore-amrnb --enable-version3.
Mac Audio Ice Storm ― Автоэлектроника AutoAudio
This is a mono-only encoder. Set bitrate in bits per second. Only the following bitrates are supported, otherwise libavcodec will round to the nearest valid bitrate. Allow discontinuous transmission generate comfort noise when set to 1. The default value is 0 disabled. Most libopus options are modelled after the opusenc utility from opus-tools.
The following is an option mapping chart describing options supported by the libopus wrapper, and their opusenc -equivalent in parentheses. Set VBR mode. The FFmpeg vbr option has the following valid arguments, with the opusenc equivalent options in parentheses:. Set encoding algorithm complexity.
Valid options are integers in the range. Set maximum frame size, or duration of a frame in milliseconds. The argument must be exactly the following: 2. Smaller frame sizes achieve lower latency but less quality at a given bitrate. Sizes greater than 20ms are only interesting at fairly low bitrates. The default is 20ms. Set cutoff bandwidth in Hz. The argument must be exactly one of the following: , , , , or , corresponding to narrowband, mediumband, wideband, super wideband, and fullband respectively.
The default is 0 cutoff disabled. Set channel mapping family to be used by the encoder. The default value of -1 uses mapping family 0 for mono and stereo inputs, and mapping family 1 otherwise. The default also disables the surround masking and LFE bandwidth optimzations in libopus, and requires that the input contains 8 channels or fewer. Other values include 0 for mono and stereo, 1 for surround sound with masking and LFE bandwidth optimizations, and for independent streams with an unspecified channel layout.
If set to 0, disables the use of phase inversion for intensity stereo, improving the quality of mono downmixes, but slightly reducing normal stereo quality. The default is 1 phase inversion enabled. Shine is a fixed-point MP3 encoder. It has a far better performance on platforms without an FPU, e. However, as it is more targeted on performance than quality, it is not on par with LAME and other production-grade encoders quality-wise.
Requires the presence of the libshine headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libshine. The following options are supported by the libshine wrapper. The shineenc -equivalent of the options are listed in parentheses. Requires the presence of the libtwolame headers and library during configuration.
You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libtwolame. The following options are supported by the libtwolame wrapper. The twolame -equivalent options follow the FFmpeg ones and are in parentheses. Default value is k. Set quality for experimental VBR support. Maximum value range is from to 50, useful range is from to The higher the value, the better the quality. Set psychoacoustic model to use in encoding.
The argument must be an integer between -1 and 4, inclusive. The default value is 3. Requires the presence of the libvo-amrwbenc headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libvo-amrwbenc --enable-version3. Requires the presence of the libvorbisenc headers and library during configuration.
You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libvorbis. The following options are supported by the libvorbis wrapper. The oggenc -equivalent of the options are listed in parentheses. The value should be a float number in the range of Set cutoff bandwidth in Hz, a value of 0 disables cutoff. This only has effect on ABR mode. Set noise floor bias for impulse blocks. The value is a float number from A negative bias instructs the encoder to pay special attention to the crispness of transients in the encoded audio.
The tradeoff for better transient response is a higher bitrate. Requires the presence of the libwavpack headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libwavpack. Note that a libavcodec-native encoder for the WavPack codec exists so users can encode audios with this codec without using this encoder. See wavpackenc. This is a libavcodec-native WavPack encoder.
There is also an encoder based on libwavpack, but there is virtually no reason to use that encoder. The following shared options are effective for this encoder. Only special notes about this particular encoder will be documented here. For the general meaning of the options, see the Codec Options chapter. For this encoder, the range for this option is between and Default is automatically decided based on sample rate and number of channel.
Set whether to enable optimization for mono. This option is only effective for non-mono streams. Available values:. Specifies the number of chunks to split frames into, between 1 and This permits multithreaded decoding of large frames, potentially at the cost of data-rate. The encoder may modify this value to divide frames evenly. Specifies the second-stage compressor to use. If set to none , chunks will be limited to 1, as chunked uncompressed frames offer no benefit. The native jpeg encoder is lossy by default, the -q:v option can be used to set the encoding quality.
Lossless encoding can be selected with -pred 1. Requires the presence of the libaom headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libaom. By default this will use variable-bitrate mode. If maxrate and minrate are also set to the same value then it will use constant-bitrate mode, otherwise if crf is set as well then it will use constrained-quality mode.
Set key frame placement. The GOP size sets the maximum distance between key frames; if zero the output stream will be intra-only. The minimum distance is ignored unless it is the same as the GOP size, in which case key frames will always appear at a fixed interval. Not set by default, so without this option the library has completely free choice about where to place key frames. Valid range is from 0 to 63 warning: this does not match the quantiser values actually used by AV1 - divide by four to map real quantiser values to this range. Set rate control buffering parameters.
Not used if not set - defaults to unconstrained variable bitrate. Set the number of threads to use while encoding. This may require the tiles or row-mt options to also be set to actually use the specified number of threads fully. Defaults to the number of hardware threads supported by the host machine. Set the encoding profile. Defaults to using the profile which matches the bit depth and chroma subsampling of the input. Valid range is from 0 to 8, higher numbers indicating greater speed and lower quality.
The default value is 1, which will be slow and high quality. Set the maximum number of frames which the encoder may keep in flight at any one time for lookahead purposes. Defaults to the internal default of the library. Valid range is 0 to 63, higher numbers indicating lower quality and smaller output size. Only used if set; by default only the bitrate target is used. Set a change threshold on blocks below which they will be skipped by the encoder. Defined in arbitrary units as a nonnegative integer, defaulting to zero no blocks are skipped. Set a threshold for dropping frames when close to rate control bounds.
Defined as a percentage of the target buffer - when the rate control buffer falls below this percentage, frames will be dropped until it has refilled above the threshold. Defaults to zero no frames are dropped. Amount of noise to be removed for grain synthesis. Grain synthesis is disabled if this option is not set or set to 0. Block size used for denoising for grain synthesis. If not set, AV1 codec uses the default value of Set datarate undershoot min percentage of the target bitrate. Range is -1 to Default is Set datarate overshoot max percentage of the target bitrate.
Minimum percentage variation of the GOP bitrate from the target bitrate. Default is -1 unset. Maximum percentage variation of the GOP bitrate from the target bitrate. Set the number of tiles to encode the input video with, as columns x rows. Larger numbers allow greater parallelism in both encoding and decoding, but may decrease coding efficiency.
Defaults to the minimum number of tiles required by the size of the input video this is 1x1 that is, a single tile for sizes up to and including 4K.
Set the number of tiles as log2 of the number of tile rows and columns. Enable Constrained Directional Enhancement Filter. The libaom-av1 encoder enables CDEF by default. Enable block copy mode for intra block prediction. This mode is useful for screen content. Default is true. Requires the presence of the libkvazaar headers and library during configuration.
You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libkvazaar. See kvazaar documentation for a list of options. This encoder requires the presence of the libopenh headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libopenh The library is detected using pkg-config. Set the number of slices, used in parallelized encoding. Set profile restrictions. Requires the presence of the libtheora headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libtheora.
The following global options are mapped to internal libtheora options which affect the quality and the bitrate of the encoded stream. Used to enable constant quality mode VBR encoding through the qscale flag, and to enable the pass1 and pass2 modes. A higher value corresponds to a higher quality. Enable VBR mode when set to a non-negative value, and set constant quality value as a double floating point value in QP units. The value is clipped in the  range, and then multiplied by 6.
Requires the presence of the libvpx headers and library during configuration. You need to explicitly configure the build with --enable-libvpx. The following options are supported by the libvpx wrapper. The vpxenc -equivalent options or values are listed in parentheses for easy migration. To reduce the duplication of documentation, only the private options and some others requiring special attention are documented here. For the documentation of the undocumented generic options, see the Codec Options chapter. Further information is available in the libvpx API documentation.
Set ratecontrol buffer size in bits. Set number of bits which should be loaded into the rc buffer before decoding starts. Use best quality deadline. Poorly named and quite slow, this option should be avoided as it may give worse quality output than good. Use good quality deadline. This is a good trade-off between speed and quality when used with the cpu-used option.
Enable use of alternate reference frames 2-pass only. Values greater than 1 enable multi-layer alternate reference frames VP9 only. For example, to specify temporal scalability parameters with ffmpeg :. Set number of tile columns to use. For example, 8 tile columns would be requested by setting the tile-columns option to 3. Set number of tile rows to use. For example, 4 tile rows would be requested by setting the tile-rows option to 2. The Index of Multiple Deprivation is the official measure of relative deprivation for small areas or neighbourhoods in England based on postcode.
Two practices were in decile 3, one was in decile 4, one was in decile 6, two were in decile 8; one was in decile 9; and one was in decile One practice with one trained practice nurse withdrew after recruiting 11 participants six Combined VBI and five Control. In total, participants were recruited and randomised, and followed up between April and February Conclusions were unchanged on adjustment for age. Among responders, there were no significant between-arm differences in gender, ethnicity, or employment. The sensitivity analysis to adjust between-arm comparisons for age did not appreciably alter confidence interval widths.
The other constructs also generally showed an advantage over the control arm but had low internal consistency. Beliefs about increasing physical activity by arm and comparisons between each VBI and control. Contamination was minimal. Four practitioners reported that ease and duration of VBI delivery depended more on the responsiveness of participants than on VBI content. All practitioners felt that the Pedometer VBI was the easiest and quickest to deliver, and that delivery of the Combined VBI was most difficult and time-consuming interview themes are available from the first author.
The 12 practitioners interviewed reported that they felt most confident delivering the Pedometer and Combined VBIs and that these two VBIs were the most acceptable to participants and were most likely to be effective. The patterns observed for the accelerometer and questionnaire data at the time of the meeting did not differ from those observed in the full dataset. Although the response rate was lower in the Pedometer VBI arm at 1-month follow-up, we found no evidence of a systematic effect of season, practice, age or gender that could explain the differential response rate.
We aimed to assess the potential efficacy, feasibility, acceptability and cost of three VBIs for physical activity and to select the most promising intervention for evaluation in a subsequent large-scale randomised controlled trial, designed to provide robust estimates of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.
Participants and practitioners found all VBIs acceptable, and their cost was low. Based on these findings, the Pedometer VBI was selected for further evaluation. Our decision is supported by systematic reviews and meta-analyses of pedometer-based interventions, which showed that they increase physical activity [ 26 , 27 ].
This might have reduced its effectiveness [ 28 ] by either compromising intervention quality or fidelity of delivery [ 29 ], or by overwhelming participants [ 30 ]. We observed similar levels of objectively measured or self-reported physical activity when comparing each VBI with the control group. This result is not surprising. Previous trials of very brief interventions for physical activity had inconclusive findings [ 6 ], and any effects on physical activity were relatively small.
For example, Calfas et al. Second, our trial was not powered to detect significant differences between groups but aimed to determine the potential efficacy of the VBIs and inform sample size for the main trial.
Although the effects of the Motivational and Pedometer VBIs observed in this study are small, the VBIs are scalable, cheap and could be delivered to a large proportion of the adult population, where small effects at the individual level could translate to a substantial public health impact. All VBIs commenced with practitioner feedback on current physical activity levels and information about recommendations and how to self-monitor behaviour. However, the Motivational and Combined VBIs also required practitioners to ask participants how they might benefit from increasing their physical activity, how important increasing their physical activity was to them, and how confident they were about increasing their activity, which is likely to have increased the duration of delivery.
Although intentions were highest in the Combined VBI group, daily accelerometer counts per minute were lowest in this group. As observed previously [ 31 , 32 ], increases in intentions do not automatically translate into behaviour change, and inclusion of self-regulation BCTs such as those included in the Pedometer VBI may be needed to bridge the intention-behaviour gap [ 31 , 32 ]. A potential limitation might be that we chose not to measure physical activity objective or self-report at baseline.
This decision was justified given the evidence for baseline measurement effects and reduced uptake of the Health Checks. Furthermore, our primary purpose in conducting the trial was to compare randomised groups, and statistical inference is still valid in this context, even in the absence of baseline measures. A further potential limitation was the representativeness of our sample. Our participants, being predominantly white and relatively affluent, are representative of the region but not of the UK population as a whole. Finally, non-response rate was unexplainably higher in the Pedometer arm.
First, our findings are likely to have high ecological and external validity: our study was conducted in a primary care setting; our participants were representative of adults attending NHS Health Checks in the East of England; we recruited practices from rural and urban and from affluent and deprived areas; and we trained health practitioners who routinely delivered NHS Health Checks rather than specialist staff. Second, our randomisation procedure resulted in comparable demographic groups.
Third, using a confidence interval approach Bayesian inference to determine potential intervention efficacy ahead of the main trial enabled us to evaluate the effect of several interventions relative to control on objectively measured physical activity at the same time, and use the estimates to select the most promising intervention and calculate the sample size for the main trial.
Fourth, the use of quantitative and qualitative methods to inform VBI selection, and the use of four a priori defined criteria allowed us to select the best-bet intervention for the main trial based on practicality as well as potential efficacy, and to optimise the intervention ahead of the trial. A key challenge was how to combine the findings for these four criteria. We used a Likert-type rating system in which each research team member rated each VBI on the four criteria and produced an average total rating for each VBI. This method enabled an independent assessment by each research team member, with equal weight given to each criterion.
We demonstrated that all three VBIs are promising in terms of low costs, but it is unlikely that practitioners can deliver the Motivational VBI as part of routine consultations with limited time. Our findings are consistent with systematic review evidence that pedometer-based interventions can increase physical activity [ 26 , 27 ] and also demonstrate that practitioners can integrate a very brief pedometer intervention into a routine consultation. However, commissioners and policy makers need evidence about cost-effectiveness, therefore large-scale trials are needed to evaluate the effects of VBIs on objectively measured physical activity, supplemented with decision modelling [ 34 ] to estimate longer-term costs and outcomes and potential public health impact.
The Pedometer VBI was selected for evaluation in a large-scale trial to estimate effects on objectively measured physical activity, cost-effectiveness and potential public health impact. This study was conducted on behalf of the Very Brief Interventions Programme team see www. The authors would like to thank all participants and practitioners involved in this research, and Lewis Griffiths MRC Epidemiology Unit for his assistance with accelerometry data processing. The funder had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, the writing of the manuscript, and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
ATP contributed during the study design, including the sample size and, with JV, undertook and interpreted the statistical analysis. RP contributed to the statistical analysis planning, and wrote and tested the randomisation program. EW undertook the economic analysis. KW and SB advised on the physical activity data. All authors contributed to analysing and interpreting the data. SP and WH drafted the manuscript. All authors read, contributed to and approved the final manuscript. All participants included in this study gave written consent to participate.
Additional file 1: K, pdf Content and component behaviour change techniques of the three very brief interventions. Fidelity Coding Items for each very brief intervention used to assess the audio-recorded Health Check consultations. Definitions of the four selection criteria, and the measures that informed the ratings of each very brief intervention on each criterion. The mean Likert ratings by the research team for each criterion and each very brief intervention.
Sally Pears, Email: ku. Maaike Bijker, Email: ku. Katie Morton, Email: ku. Joana Vasconcelos, Email: ku. Richard A. Parker, Email: ku. Kate Westgate, Email: ku. Soren Brage, Email: ku. Ed Wilson, Email: ku. Toby Prevost, Email: ku. Ann-Louise Kinmonth, Email: ku. Simon Griffin, Email: ku. Stephen Sutton, Email: ku. Wendy Hardeman, Email: ku. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. BMC Public Health. Published online Sep Toby Prevost. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Feb 4; Accepted Sep This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Background Very brief interventions VBIs for physical activity are promising, but there is uncertainty about their potential effectiveness and cost. Conclusions Based on the four criteria, the Pedometer VBI was selected for evaluation in a large-scale trial. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi Keywords: Very brief interventions, Physical activity, Behaviour change techniques, Health promotion, Public health, Primary care. Background Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and is a key risk factor for non-communicable diseases NCDs such as cardiovascular disease, some cancers and type 2 diabetes [ 1 ].
Participants Participants were recruited between May and February from eight NHS primary care practices in urban and rural areas in the East of England. Procedures Primary care practitioners practice nurses and health care assistants responsible for delivering Health Checks were trained to deliver the VBIs to participants. Planned interventions The NHS health check consultation All participants received the usual NHS Health Check, which aims to help prevent heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, kidney disease and certain types of dementia by assessing risk through a combination of personal details, family history of illness, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, BMI, blood pressure and cholesterol.
Practitioner training and promotion of intervention fidelity Health practitioners who delivered Health Checks underwent a 3-h training session, accompanied by a training manual, to deliver each of the three VBIs.